Storage of Electricity – #Batteries & BIG image

by Gr8Full! | July 29, 2016 4:09 am

This discussion provides the current and future of of Li, G, NAM; H2O and more…
After Fukushima REBECCA JOHNSON 24 March 2011 https://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/rebecca-johnson/after-fukushima[1]

LONG TSX-V: GGG $0.25 OTCQB: $GPHBF $0.19, July 28, 2016 Graphene 3D Lab Introduces New Type of Single Layer Graphene Material:
http://www.graphene3dlab.com/s/news.asp?ReportID=757543&_Type=News&_Title=Graphene-3D-Lab-Introduces-New-Type-of-Single-Layer-Graphene-Material[2]

$GLFN – http://galenfeha.com/[3] and #Gummune

Author: arch1 Comment: http://www.stockgumshoe.com/2016/03/microblog-club-house-for-the-discussion-of-religion-politics-and-other-unmentionables-volume-5/comment-page-17/#comment-4886050[4] New development for battery research to make electric vehicles practical and cost competitive…
Best2You ~ Benjamin @H0U3

Endnotes:
  1. https://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/rebecca-johnson/after-fukushima: https://www.opendemocracy.net/5050/rebecca-johnson/after-fukushima
  2. http://www.graphene3dlab.com/s/news.asp?ReportID=757543&_Type=News&_Title=Graphene-3D-Lab-Introduces-New-Type-of-Single-Layer-Graphene-Material: http://www.graphene3dlab.com/s/news.asp?ReportID=757543&_Type=News&_Title=Graphene-3D-Lab-Introduces-New-Type-of-Single-Layer-Graphene-Material
  3. http://galenfeha.com/: http://galenfeha.com/
  4. http://www.stockgumshoe.com/2016/03/microblog-club-house-for-the-discussion-of-religion-politics-and-other-unmentionables-volume-5/comment-page-17/#comment-4886050: http://www.stockgumshoe.com/2016/03/microblog-club-house-for-the-discussion-of-religion-politics-and-other-unmentionables-volume-5/comment-page-17/#comment-4886050

Source URL: https://www.stockgumshoe.com/2016/07/microblog-storage-of-electricity-batteries-big-image/


  1. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Sep 24 2018, 11:11:36 am

    $FYI – Cobalt Miners News For The Month Of September 2018
    by Matt Bohlsen @SA – Includes: AEOMF, AMSLF, ARRRF, ARTTF, AZRMF, BBBMF, BHP, BKTPF

    Summary
    Cobalt spot prices were slightly down in September but appear to have stabilized just below US$30/lb.
    Cobalt market news – Any reduction of the cobalt content would likely be far outweighed by a four-to-five-fold increase in demand for batteries.
    Mining News – “Cobalt heading towards 2020s deficit.”
    DRC H1 2018 – Cobalt production jumped 37.6% to 52,491 tonnes.
    Cobalt miners news – China Molybdenum increases net profit by 162.95% year on year. RNC Minerals hits a massive high grade gold deposit at their Beta Hunt mine in Australia, ~C$38m so far in 2 weeks.

    “Reduced cobalt electric car batteries delayed amid price fall. This month provided further evidence that cobalt bulls may rest a little bit easier – rapidly rising global battery production volumes should more than make up for ongoing cobalt thrifting”

    https://seekingalpha.com/article/4207821-cobalt-miners-news-month-september-2018?isDirectRoadblock=true

    $ARL long

  2. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Sep 25 2018, 11:37:18 am

    $FYI – Lithium Junior Miner News For The Month Of September 2018
    by Matt Bohlsen @SA – Includes: AAL, ABEPF, AISSF, AVLIF, AVLNF, AVNLF, AZZVF, BCLMF, CRECF, CYDVF,

    Summary
    Lithium spot prices in China fall slightly, and global contract prices rise – The price gap is now closed.
    Lithium market news – Lithium Australia Managing Director Adrian Griffin sees huge demand ahead for lithium.
    Junior lithium miner company news – Cypress Development Corp. delivers PEA with a post-tax NPV 8% US$1.45b, IRR 32.7%. Company market cap under $20 million, an outstanding result.

    https://seekingalpha.com/article/4208117-lithium-junior-miner-news-month-september-2018?isDirectRoadblock=true

    $MGXMF long

  3. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Sep 25 2018, 12:46:30 pm

    $ESnC – EnSync Energy and Hawai’i Pacific University Partner to Bring Solar Energy to Oceanic Institute Campus

    http://ensync.investorroom.com/2018-09-25-EnSync-Energy-and-Hawaii-Pacific-University-Partner-to-Bring-Solar-Energy-to-Oceanic-Institute-Campus

    “”Working with Hawai’i Pacific University and the Oceanic Institute of HPU enables us to champion both responsible coastal resource management and now sustainable, local energy. Just as its technology leadership has had ripple effects on the aquaculture industry, we hope the Oceanic Institute’s interest in solar energy technology will spread as well,” said Brad Hansen, CEO of EnSync Energy.”

    ESNC long

  4. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Sep 26 2018, 02:27:44 pm

    $FYI – Graphite Miners News For The Month Of September 2018
    by Matt Bohlsen @SA – Includes: AMVMF, APMFF, BSSMF, CYLYF, CZSVF, DMNKF, ECORF, FCSMF, GLKIF, G

    Summary
    Graphite spot prices were basically flat in September.
    Graphite market news – India has ended anti-dumping duties on graphite electrodes imported from China.
    Graphite company news – Several large successful capital raises for graphite companies. Triton Minerals lands Shandong Tianye as a cornerstone investor.

    https://seekingalpha.com/article/4208415-graphite-miners-news-month-september-2018?isDirectRoadblock=true

    “China’s push for blue skies has caused an obscure steel making ingredient to fuel gains of as much as 2,600 percent since the start of 2017 for the few companies that supply it, minting at least one new billionaire. The material is graphite,”
    ““It takes 10-15 times more graphite than lithium to create a lithium-ion battery for any number of uses including electric vehicle batteries. Leading analyst Industrial Minerals has indicated that Chinese suppliers of graphite to the electric vehicle market are ‘sold out’ of material indicating possible that stockpiling of the material is occurring,” states A. Paul Gill, CEO of Lomiko Metals Inc.”

    • 473 |
      Cowboy
      Sep 26 2018, 08:47:20 pm

      Hey there Brother Griffin. You are a one man show on here lately ! You beat me to posting too much. Thanks for the info and links. Hopefully things in the sector will come alive again and we can get more of our holdings in the green. I miss HN and all the jawin we used to do around here. Looks like the Red tide has taken over. I have a few more funds to play with but can’t decide if tax selling has been taking place or yet to begin !…..Cowboy

      • 11280 |
        Gr8Full!
        Gr8Full!
        Sep 26 2018, 09:40:53 pm

        #Gr8Full to Griffin, Cowboy, Ed, #HendrixNuzzlez and others in the #EV #Battery #Gumgang! Been a busy summer with lots of changes in this sector/technologies and my personal family life. Lqqking forward to a hopefully, more relaxing, share price appreciation, and time to share more links and news this #Fall2018. 🙂 Appreciate ya’ll 🙂 Live long and Prosper! 🙂
        #BenJammin’, @H0U3 🙂

      • 2429 |
        Griffin
        Sep 27 2018, 03:06:07 pm

        Just doing what I like to do to try and stay up with the market(?). I’ve only got one stock in the green and that is Real Good Solar $RGSE but not by much. The red tide hasn’t taken over yet but has done some pretty obscene things to stay in power(?). All I can say is VOTE.

  5. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Sep 27 2018, 12:16:36 pm

    $FYI – It’s a Lithium-ion World But Vanadium Batteries Are Catching Up

    Date: Sep 27, 2018

    The recent success of lithium-ion batteries being deployed in increasing larger systems that are exceeding 1 GWh has brought to light the huge potential of the market for all types of battery technologies, Benchmark Mineral Intelligence says.

    The discussion around the energy storage space is heating up, with many market participants wondering which metals will be needed to supply increasing demand from this market.

    According to Benchmark Mineral Intelligence, the recent success of lithium-ion batteries in increasingly larger systems exceeding 1 GWh has brought to light the huge potential market for all types of battery technologies.

    For many years, vanadium-flow batteries have been a favored technology to enter the energy storage space in a serious way, and the London-based firm forecasts that it could become a major player in the market, second to lithium-ion batteries.“If a vanadium battery producer steps forward with bold plans to produce vanadium flow at mass scale, giving the industry its ‘Elon Musk or lithium-ion moment,’ the potential for the technology to be the second-most-deployed energy storage system battery in the world is there,” Benchmark Managing Director Simon Moores told the Investing News Network (INN).

    Vanadium-flow batteries are a viable option for large-scale storage because they are able to provide hundreds of megawatt hours at grid scale. That means they can be charged thousands of times without losing capacity, while holding large amounts of energy.

    This type of battery makes sense where three conditions are met:

    the energy storage systems needs to be big — more than 100 megawatts;
    the system needs to provide power for relatively long durations — at least four hours;
    the system must be used often — about once a day, every day.
    “For awhile, the electricity grid didn’t need this kind of energy storage — natural gas power plants did just fine — but the rise of renewable energy and the desire for low-carbon electricity made flow batteries more attractive,” Tim Grejtak, energy storage analyst at Lux Research, told INN.

    https://www.vanadiumprice.com/its-a-lithium-ion-world-but-vanadium-batteries-are-catching-up/

    via VanadiumPrice.com : Newsletter

  6. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Sep 27 2018, 12:41:49 pm

    $CECBF – CellCube Selected by E.ON as Large Scale Long Duration Energy Storage Solution for Project in Sweden

    “The village of Simris, located in the region of Scania in southern Sweden, is supplied 100 percent by locally produced renewable energy on an annual basis. This community microgrid showcases energy supply entirely by sun and wind. The energy for approximately 150 households is being generated from wind turbines with installed capacity of 500 kilowatts (kW) and photovoltaic panels with 440 kW, and will now be supported by a CellCube energy storage system with 1,800 kWh usable energy capacity.”

    https://www.cellcubeenergystorage.com/cube-press-release-09272018

    CECBF long

  7. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Sep 27 2018, 12:58:14 pm

    $FYI – Vanadium Miners News For The Month Of September 2018
    `by Matt Bohlsen @SA – Includes: AMVMF, APAFF, ATVVF, AUEEF, BSHVF, CCC, CCCCF, GLCNF, LGORF, MTTGF, MVT, PCY, PNTZF, PRPCF, RDRUY, RRSSF, SRHYY, SYAAF, UUUU, VDMRF

    Summary
    Vanadium spot prices rise and break the US$20 level.
    Vanadium market news: Vanadium could have its “Elon Musk moment” as it advances towards powering 25 per cent of stationary battery storage by 2028.
    Vanadium company news: The vanadium producers are making excellent profits and paying down debt.

    “The multi-billion dollar market that could give vanadium stocks a boost. Researchers have found a way of making cheaper energy-efficient windows using vanadium. The new technology may open up a market worth billions of dollars for ASX-listed vanadium players.”

    https://seekingalpha.com/article/4208605-vanadium-miners-news-month-september-2018?isDirectRoadblock=true

    $AVL $TMT $VONE long

  8. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Sep 27 2018, 03:17:21 pm

    $FYI – Rapid changes in US market driving up value of residential and other BTM energy storage

    “Janice Lin, head of the California Energy Storage Alliance (CESA), told Energy-Storage.news at the show this week that the overall market for energy is growing fast and that interest is also scaling up from outside sources.

    “One of the indicators that [energy storage is] really taking on and taking root on a global scale is that we have a lot of proactive enquiries from regulators, decision makers, governments, that are very pro-actively exploring how to incorporate storage into their respective power sector, or their jurisdiction,” Lin said, adding that NGOs and climate groups and advocates including former US vice president Al Gore are also making positive comments or starting initiatives on energy storage.”

    https://www.energy-storage.news/news/rapid-changes-in-us-market-driving-up-value-of-residential-and-other-btm-en

  9. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Oct 1 2018, 05:29:57 pm

    $FYI – Tesla’s big lithium battery in South Australia is making millions, operator confirms

    https://stockhead.com.au/resources/teslas-big-lithium-battery-in-south-australia-is-making-millions-operator-confirms/?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Stockhead%20Morning%20Newsletter%20Tue%20Oct%202%202018&utm_content=Stockhead%20Morning%20Newsletter%20Tue%20Oct%202%202018+CID_93948e7fc40de2c88efb5f55b2b8d8ac&utm_source=Campaign%20Monitor&utm_term=Teslas%20big%20lithium%20battery%20in%20South%20Australia%20is%20making%20millions%20operator%20confirms

    “This first half revenue from the Hornsdale Power Reserve included $2.24m under the power purchase agreement with the South Australian government and $10.75m from electricity sales and grid services, a Neoen spokesperson told Stockhead via email.”

  10. 791 |
    edski
    Oct 3 2018, 02:02:02 pm

    $CECBF lp
    Well Holy Cow Cowboy! What’s happening with the stock today?
    I can’t find anything, but I’m liking it!

    • 2429 |
      Griffin
      Oct 3 2018, 02:37:08 pm

      Maybe someone finally figured out what “Deployment of First Rapid Lithium Extraction System” means, these systems are portable. You call MGX an order one(?) and they deliver and surely train in how to use. Undoubtedly there are permits, etc., required but any place there is lithium brine is a potential spot for one of these systems.

      $MGXMF wishing I was longer

      • 791 |
        edski
        Oct 4 2018, 09:44:06 am

        Absolutely correct! I think that this is the overall game changer for them, the fact that they can move around from well to well when needed. I do not know how long of a time it would be used at a sight, but the fact remains that it is portable and reusable.
        OK Griffin….I hope that I never makd=e a misteak!

    • renbycage
      Oct 3 2018, 04:56:17 pm

      $CECBF I had an order at the open today to see if I could accumulate more shares at .115, it hit as low as .118, but then took off from there. I have a very decent stake already, was hoping to maybe even double it if I could below .12, but I’ll take the booster shot, I need it with my cobalt stocks getting crushed this year. If I missed my price, I missed it, it could come back down, or blast off from here, I think this pony has potential for huge gains.

  11. 473 |
    Cowboy
    Oct 3 2018, 10:25:03 pm

    SPNRF —Long…… Nice move today on twice the normal daily volume ! And THAT wasn’t too much money’s worth..LOL….Cowboy

  12. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Oct 9 2018, 10:46:26 am

    $MGXMF – MGX Signs Definitive Agreement to Acquire Lithium Brine Projects in Chile – Permitting in Place to Commence Drill Program

    https://www.mgxminerals.com/investors/news/2018/413-mgx-signs-definitive-agreement-to-acquire-lithium-brine-projects-in-chile-permitting-in-place-to-commence-drill-program.html

    “Two samples from the Laguna Brava Project were received at PurLucid Treatment Solutions Inc. (“PurLucid”) facilities in Calgary, Alberta to undergo pilot testing to prepare a Rapid Lithium Extraction unit deployment. Drilling contractors will be on site this week to prepare the drilling program at Francisco Basin Project, which will be overseen by SRK Consulting to deliver a 43-101 complaint Resource Estimation as soon as the exploration program is completed.”

    MGXMF long

    • 791 |
      edski
      Oct 11 2018, 09:31:44 am

      $CECBF lp-
      Maybe not now, but energy storage IS in their wheelhouse, and the future looks bright for more business from drilling to storage. No need to look for a battery supplier when the time comes.

  13. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Oct 11 2018, 11:34:20 am

    $EVSI – Envision Solar Announces the Delivery of EV ARC™ Products to Five California State Hospitals

    https://mailchi.mp/envisionsolar.com/envision-solar-announces-the-delivery-of-ev-arc-products-to-five-california-state-hospital?e=6ae74f3a4f

    “The five State Hospitals chose the EV ARC™ product because of its rapid and impact free installation, utility-bill-free EV charging and versatile capability of providing a source of both EV charging and backup power in the event of grid failure. The deployments follow the hospitals’ extensive plans in disaster mitigation and improving resiliency. The EV ARC™ product will provide clean solar energy for public and workplace EV charging and serve as a backup generator in the event of a blackout.”

    EVSI long

  14. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Oct 11 2018, 12:13:20 pm

    $MGXMF – MGX Minerals Reports Gibraltar Silicon Project Metallurgy; Suitability for Metallurgical Grade Silicon Confirmed

    https://www.mgxminerals.com/investors/news/2018/414-mgx-minerals-reports-gibraltar-silicon-project-metallurgy-suitability-for-metallurgical-grade-silicon-confirmed.html

    “Results indicate that the material, after comminution and classification fraction, is of high initial purity (99.5 wt.-%), making the fraction chemically suitable as medium quality feedstock material for metallurgical-grade silicon production.”

    MGXMF long

  15. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Oct 11 2018, 12:39:19 pm

    $SEDG – SolarEdge to Acquire Kokam, a Provider of Li-ion Cells, Batteries, and Energy Storage Solutions

    http://investors.solaredge.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=253935&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=2371285

    “The acquisition of approximately 75% of outstanding equity shares of Kokam reflects an aggregate investment of approximately $88 million, including related transaction expenses. The transaction is subject to customary closing conditions and is expected to close in the coming weeks. Over time, the Company intends to purchase the remaining outstanding equity shares of Kokam that are currently listed on the Korean over the counter exchange through open-market purchases and otherwise, eventually resulting in Kokam becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of SolarEdge. ”

    SEDG np

  16. 2429 |
    Griffin
    Oct 11 2018, 12:52:43 pm

    $FYI/$CECBF – INDEPENDENT ARTICLE
    *Note: This is an independent article written / published about CellCube Energy Storage Systems

    https://spectrum.ieee.org/green-tech/fuel-cells/its-big-and-longlived-and-it-wont-catch-fire-the-vanadium-redoxflow-battery.amp.html

    “At the outset, it wasn’t at all obvious that flow batteries were the way to go. Indeed, we started off by reviewing all of the various battery technologies, including lithium ion, sodium sulfur, advanced lead acid, redox flow, and a few other novel concepts.”

    CECBF long

  17. 437 |
    eagerbeaver
    Oct 14 2018, 09:56:42 pm

    I found this excellent interview on Battery Metals and Megafactories posted by Vector on Hot Copper’s Ardea thread.

    Here’s the link if you wish to save it and read later.

    https://www.cobalt27.com/blog/index.php?content_id=185

    Cobalt 27 Q&A with Simon Moores, Managing Director, Benchmark Mineral Intelligence

    Battery megafactories have become a buzzword in recent years. What are these factories and why do they have the battery metals industry so excited?
    Battery Megafactories was a term Benchmark Mineral Intelligence created back in 2014 to describe any lithium ion battery plant over 1GWh in capacity.
    Four years ago, the lithium ion battery industry was a completely different landscape. The industry was highly fragmented with very small battery plants geared to serving the mobile phone, laptop and power tool markets.
    That was until Elon Musk and Tesla came along. In the early 2010’s, they introduced the Gigafactory plan to create the world’s biggest lithium ion battery cell manufacturing facility and EV manufacturing hub under one roof.
    The plant, at 35GWh capacity, was equal to size of the entire industry.
    Currently, the Tesla Gigafactory is at 20GWh of capacity and will produce at least 15GWh of cells in 2018. It will ramp to full capacity by Q1 2019 and produce at least 28GWh of cells in 2019 – an incredible achievement that is two years ahead of schedule.
    The crazy thing is that all of these batteries are being consumed in the Model 3 – Tesla never foresaw this.
    In fact, if Tesla hadn’t encountered its well-publicised engineering problems in early 2018, the company would have run out of lithium ion batteries.
    What Tesla started with its Gigafactory is far more important than the company’s own achievements: it sparked a global race for electric vehicle battery cells that is still in full swing.
    In Q1 2015, we had three battery megafactories in the pipeline according to Benchmark Mineral Intelligence’s Battery Megafactories Tracker – we were the only company at the time tracking these super battery plants.
    Today we are at 50 megafactories worldwide and have surpassed 1TWh of capacity in the pipeline.
    This is an incredible situation that is having a profound impact on the key battery raw materials of lithium, cobalt, graphite anode and nickel.
    It has ushered in a new era for 21st century commodities.
    How many factories exist today and how many can we expect to see over the next decade?
    Right now, as I mentioned, we are at 50 megafactories.
    Over half of this new capacity is located in China, with Europe emerging as the second most popular jurisdiction in recent years as Germany’s Auto OEMs seek cell supply security.
    The US has been Gigafactory dependent but we expect to see more serious moves from the Korean battery majors in North America. This is especially true of LG Chem, which operates a plant in Holland, Michigan and SK Innovation that has aspirations of building a plant there.
    2018 has seen a record number of plants being announced with Benchmark Minerals’ latest data standing at 24 plants end-September. This could easily surpass 30 by the end of the year and we do not expect this battery arms race to slow down anytime soon.
    If the world continues pushing towards an infrastructure for tens of millions of pure EVs, together with energy storage capacity, we will need far in excess of 100 of these plants operating around the world.
    Why are we seeing the emergence of the megafactories and which companies are building them?
    The race to build the supply chain for electric vehicles is undoubtedly the reason behind the megafactory rush.
    Battery companies have traditionally been very conservative. However, they now have enough confidence in the direction of the Auto industry that they are building battery plants in huge numbers and at scale.
    Previously, anything the size of 3GWh of capacity was deemed as a significant investment.
    Now we are orders of magnitudes bigger as Korean and Chinese majors push for battery plants and/or cumulative battery capacity in excess of 30GWh – close to Tesla Gigafactory size.
    It’s important here to revisit my earlier point – in the early 2010s, the entire lithium ion battery industry in total was at the level of what is now a single megafactory plant’s capacity today.
    And the industry thought Elon Musk was mad… now they are all following the blueprint he and Tesla have set.
    The battery companies to watch are the Korea majors of LG Chem, Samsung SDI and SK Innovation, together with the Chinese battery champions of CATL and BYD.
    Where is the demand growth for batteries coming from?
    Pure electric vehicles are driving this trend – these are 100% battery powered vehicles with packs in excess of 50kWh in size.
    Previously commentators discussed hybrids and plug-ins taking market share and impacting the supply chain.
    Personally, I have never believed that hybrids and plug-ins – which represent inferior halfway-house technology – were going to beat pure EVs once they really made it onto the market.
    Sure enough, we are now seeing the dawn of pure EVs where consumers have a choice at more reasonable price points. 2018 has seen the rise of Tesla’s Model 3 together with Chevrolet’s Bolt and Nissan’s new LEAF.
    As I say, this is just the dawn. In the next four years a whole host of new, pure EVs from leading brands like VW, BMW, Mercedes, and Audi will reshape landscape and we will see serious choice and serious competition at even more competitive prices.
    This period, between 2021 and 2023, will be an intense time for the supply chain and raw material suppliers.
    The second biggest area of demand, which is just kicking off, is energy storage or ESS.
    Only two years ago this market was 1GWh in size for lithium ion. In 2018, this will be four times bigger at 4GWh in size.
    The crazy thing about the ESS market, is that these stationary storage projects – which can store power off-grid and recall it at the time of need – can now be upwards of 1GWh in size per project.
    The second most important thing is that the utilities industry now has confidence that lithium ion technology functions at scale – primarily thanks to the success of Aliso Canyon project in California and Tesla’s Hornsdale project in South Australia.
    This means more and more companies are requesting lithium ion-based systems at scales of 500MWh, 1GWh and above.
    To boot, they are being installed quicker than ever.
    If we think EVs will have a big impact in the supply chain for battery raw materials, just wait until this market really gets going post-2021.
    Is this growth sustainable? Will it increase further in the next ten years?
    Yes. This shift energy storage both in electric vehicles and in ESS is a megatrend that will define the next 100 years.
    We cannot underestimate the power that high quality, abundant lithium ion batteries in these markets can hold outside of the immediate benefits of owning an EV or being able to store and sell power back to the grid.
    The wider implications are game changing for the way we live out lives.
    This could bring sustainable, renewable power to some of the poorest countries in the world and eventually bring about 100% pollution-free cities.
    The technology is now proven and lithium ion batteries are getting better and cheaper. The innovation at the pack levels is making these cells even more effective.
    Confidence in the final end product – whether it’s an EV or a energy storage system – is gaining serious momentum.
    The only thing that remains is for the supply to be there and for the supply chain to scale. The demand side of the equation is no longer a debate.
    How much extra battery metal supply will be required to feed the megafactories?
    We are building a supply chain an order of magnitude bigger than what has been seen before.
    Whereas a major battery producer used to purchase say 3,000 tonnes of lithium hydroxide a year, today they are seeking 30,000 tonnes a year all in the space of three years. A quite incredible shift.
    Benchmark Minerals’ Battery Megafactory Tracker now stands at 1.1TWh of lithium ion cell capacity by 2028. This is for plants that are already being planned, there are still many more to be announced in due course.
    However, based on the 1.1TWh of cell capacity, we will need:
    882,000 tonnes of lithium hydroxide
    218,000 tonnes of cobalt
    1.3m tonnes of graphite anode
    513,000 tonnes of nickel
    These numbers include all cathode types and take into account our own assumptions of the move to 811 chemistry which we believe will be much slower than many are expecting primarily down to cost and safety issues.
    Which metals will see the most supply pressure as a result of megafactory production?
    As we stand today, lithium hydroxide will see the most pressure together with battery grade nickel chemicals.
    We expect a cobalt squeeze post-2023 as these megafactories ramp up, however, it is our opinion that cobalt will never be engineered out of a lithium ion battery.
    When predicting where the supply squeezes will come from, you have to consider every step in the supply chain and not just mined supply.
    To make it into a lithium ion battery, these minerals and metals have to go through an extensive physical and chemical process. They have to be physically and chemically engineered at a nano scale – and in a consistent manner – to be accepted by a battery producer.
    This is why scaling battery grade material is always going to be a tougher ask than building new mine capacity and an oversupply of mined material does not equal an over supply of battery grade material.
    For an investor’s perspective, what are the most important points to bear in mind when considering the effect of megafactories on their battery metal portfolio?
    The first is to work out what capacity is really being build and what is just announced.
    The second step is to work out what cell chemistry the battery producer has chosen.
    If its NCA, for example, the cobalt content will be much lower, yet if its an NCM chemistry you will need to ask what ratios of raw materials the producer is using. Is it 523 or 611? Has the battery producer invested in a low humid production facility to make 811? If so at what scale?
    The third step is to really understand what partnerships and long term the cell producers have with auto OEMs – a strong supply chain based on strong relationships from mine to EV is the key to success in this market.
    This analysis is something we offer in our Lithium ion Battery Megafactories Assessment subscription at Benchmark Minerals.

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